Málaga, Spain. (by ToniMolero07)
Happy 71st birthday Mick Jagger! See photos of the Rolling Stones frontman through the years.
In Frankfurt, Germany, a team of students has found a new way to make buildings “climate neutral” without raising rents: Build a new rooftop apartment with each installation.
The Marvel SDCC panel is 15 minutes late. So here’s this.
(Photo source: Brian Lehrer)
A growing number of sidewalk donation bins in New York City claiming to collect clothing for the poor are actually benefiting for-profit companies.
Henry Berry Lowry (1845 - ?)
Known to some as a local hero and to others as a criminal, Henry Berry Lowry and his armed band, consisting of Lumbees, African Americans and one “buckskin” Scot, fought the Home Guard during the Civil War and the Ku Klux Klan during Reconstruction. The outlaw robbed from planters and redistributed wealth. He mysteriously disappeared after robbing $28,000 from the sheriff’s office in 1872.
"Tin-type of members of the Henry Berry Lowry posse, c. 1870. Verso: left to right: Frank McKay, Archie McCallum, and William McCallum." Image courtesy of the North Carolina Museum of History. Available from http://ncmuseumofhistory.org/workshops/indian/lowry.htm
One of twelve children, Lowry was born in 1845, a man of mixed Native American, African American and Anglo heritage. He claimed to be Tuscarora. During the Civil War, Confederate armies and the state of North Carolina conscripted Lumbees to build fortifications in Wilmington and elsewhere. Many dodged the conscription agents and hid out in the county. As a result, the Home Guard tracked down dodgers and conflict resulted. The eighteen-year-old Lowry formed a guerrilla band that fought back.
In 1864, Lowry killed two men. One accused him of stealing hogs and the other, a conscription officer, insulted and mistreated women in Lowry’s community. The Home Guard could not find Lowry, but they “tried, convicted, and executed” his brother and father for the crime.
During Reconstruction, Lowry waged war against the Ku Klux Klan and continued raiding plantations and members of what would become the Democratic White Supremacy movement. Republican governor, William Woods Holden, outlawed Lowry in 1869 and the state offered $12,000 for his capture: dead or alive. No bounty hunter ever asked for the amount, but authorities tried various ways to capture Lowry. In one instance, the Police Guard held hostage some wives of the Lowry band. Lowry threatened to implement widespread violence if the women were not released. Knowing Lowry made genuine threats, the Guard colonel released the wives.
Lowry’s activities have become legend. Many consider him a Robin Hood, for he robbed (and killed) the powerful in Robeson County. He was also captured three times and found a way to escape each time—once, filing through jail bars. Legend says he single-handedly routed 18 militiamen in one gunfight near the Lumber River. His last robbery and disappearance contribute greatly to his mystique: In 1872, he mysteriously disappeared after robbing the local sheriff’s office and taking $28,000.
His death is disputed. Some believe he died during or shortly after the heist, but others reported seeing him a few years later sitting quietly at a funeral. In the 1930s, some claimed that he was still alive.
After his 1872 disappearance, the Lowry Band was without its namesake and leader. Their exploits ceased, and in few years, almost every member of the band had been captured or killed.
-North Carolina History Project
Genocide Of The Native American Peoples- Post Civil War Years America. "kill the Indian and save the man"
The Indian boarding school movement began in the post Civil War era when idealistic reformers turned their attention to the plight of Indian people. Whereas before many Americans regarded the native people with either fear or loathing, the reformers believed that with the proper education and treatment Indians could become just like other citizens. ie “Assimilation” = (Genocide)
One of the first efforts to accomplish this goal was the Carlisle Indian School in Pennsylvania, founded by Captain Richard Henry Pratt in 1879. Pratt was a leading proponent of the assimilation through education policy. Believing that Indian ways were inferior to those of whites, he subscribed to the principle, “kill the Indian and save the man.”
Children were usually immersed in European-American culture through appearance changes with haircuts, were forbidden to speak their native languages, and traditional names were replaced by new European-American names. The experience of the schools was often harsh, especially for the younger children who were separated from their families. In numerous ways, they were encouraged or forced to abandon their Native American identities and cultures. The number of Native American children in the boarding schools reached a peak in the 1970s, with an estimated enrollment of 60,000 in 1973. Investigations of the later twentieth century have revealed many documented cases of sexual, manual, physical and mental abuse occurring at such schools.
Arriving at the boarding schools, their lives usually altered dramatically. They were given short haircuts (a source of shame for boys of many tribes), uniforms, and English names. They were not allowed to speak their own languages, even between each other, and they were expected to attend church services and encouraged to convert to Christianity. Discipline was stiff in many schools (as it was in families and other areas of society), and it often included chores and punishments.
The following is a quote from Anna Moore regarding the Phoenix Indian School:
"If we were not finished [scrubbing the dining room floors] when the 8 a.m. whistle sounded, the dining room matron would go around strapping us while we were still on our hands and knees."
American Indian Boarding Schools Haunt Many - Audio (NPR)
The Indian boarding school movement began in the post Civil War era
For the government, it was a possible solution to the so-called Indian problem. For the tens of thousands of Indians who went to boarding schools, it’s largely remembered as a time of abuse and desecration of culture.
The government still operates a handful of off-reservation boarding schools, but funding is in decline. Now many American Indians are fighting to keep the schools open.
'Kill the Indian … Save the Man'
An Army officer, Richard Pratt, founded the first of these schools. He based it on an education program he had developed in an Indian prison. He described his philosophy in a speech he gave in 1892.
"A great general has said that the only good Indian is a dead one, and that high sanction of his destruction has been an enormous factor in promoting Indian massacres. In a sense, I agree with the sentiment, but only in this: that all the Indian there is in the race should be dead. Kill the Indian in him, and save the man."
The two group portraits, taken at the Carlisle Indian Industrial School, show Chiricahua Apache boys and girls at the time of their arrival in November 1886, and four months after arriving, in March 1887.
Back row (L to R): Hugh Chee, Frederick Eskelsejah (Fred’ k Eskelsijah), Clement Seanilzay, Samson Noran, Ernest Hogee. Middle row: Margaret Y. Nadasthilah. Front row (L to R): Humphrey Escharzay, Beatrice Kiahtel, Janette Pahgostatum, Bishop Eatennah, Basil Ekarden.
John N. Choate was commissioned by the school to make portraits of the students as a public relations effort showing the success of the school in assimilating the Indians. Attended by over 12,000 Native American children from more than 140 tribes between 1879 and 1918, Carlisle was the model for nearly 150 Indian schools. Upon arrival, school officials cut the children’s hair and exchanged their clothing for uniforms. Students were given Christian names, and were punished for speaking their native languages. Note the changes in dress, hair, and skin color. This group belonged to the Chiricahua Apache tribe, whose leader, the famous Geronimo, had surrendered with his followers in September 1886, marking the end of the Apache wars. The band, including 103 children, was taken prisoner and sent to Florida; many of the children were then taken to Carlisle School.
The photographer arranged the students in the same order in the later portrait. Scholars note that the “after” portraits followed established conventions of middle-class portraiture of the period, emphasizing the civilizing mission of the school. School founder Richard Platt described this goal in an 1892 speech “all the Indian there is in the race should be dead. Kill the Indian in him, and save the man.”
Source: November 1886 photograph, National Museum of the American Indian, Washington D.C
"For 500 generations they flourished until newcomers came… much was lost; much was devalued, but much was also hidden away in the hearts of the dispossessed…
…Their voices insist upon a hearing and the cumulative wisdom of their long residence in this land offers rich insights to those willing to listen. The challenge now is to find a way to make knowledge of the ancient traditions, the experience of change and the living reality accessible and available…”
~ excerpt from Native Americans of the Pacific Northwest: An Introduction by David M. Buerge